Category Archives: Certification

VCP-IaaS Study Notes: Section 1.2

This is Section 1.2 in the VCP-IaaS blueprint Guide 1.2. The rest of the (completed) sections can be found here.

  • Identify components of vCloud Connector
  • vCloud Connector UI
  • vCloud Connector Server
  • vCloud Connector Nodes

  • Describe cross-cloud vApp flow
  1. Customer requests transfer using vCC UI.
  2. vCC Server tells Node to transfer vApp.
  3. Node tells vCenter Server to “export” using VIM API.
  4. Content is moved from datastores to source Node cache via vmkernel network.
  5. Content is transferred from source to destination Node via multipart using checkpoint-restart.
  6. Destination Node tells vCD to do an “import” using vCloud API.
  7. Content transfers from destination Node cache to vCD transfer server storage.
  8. vCD commands the appropriate vCenter import.
  9. Content transfers from vCD transfer server storage to destination datastore via vmkernel network and is made available through the vCD catalog.

  • Identify VM state (shutdown/power down)
    • Click workloads in the vCloud Connector GUI.
    • Select the appropriate entry
    • If you are changing the state of a vApp with multiple VMs, the status of the child VMs will not reflect their new state automatically. To see the updated status, refresh the screen.
  • Differentiate between functionality of components of vCloud Connector
    • vCloud Connector UI
      • vCloud Connector UI is the user interface that vCloud Connector Server produces. It can be surfaced in vSphere Client or at If you decide to display your UI via, and your vCC Server is behind a firewall, only browsers also behind the firewall can see the UI. You decide where to display the UI during the configuration process.
    • vCloud Connector Server
      • vCloud Connnector Server is a virtual appliance that coordinates the activity of vCloud Connector, controls vCloud Connector Nodes, and produces the vCloud Connector UI. Only one vCloud Connector Server is needed.
    • vCloud Connector Nodes
      • vCloud Connector Nodes are virtual appliances that handle transferring content from one cloud to another. Transfers between clouds that are interrupted, for example because of network problems, can be resumed at the point that they were interrupted. A vCloud Connector Node must be installed in every vSphere or vCloud cloud that vCloud Connector oversees.
  • Explain the relationship between the components of vCloud Connector
    • vCloud Connector Server is installed at local vSphere environment
      • Only one Connection Server is needed.
    • A vCloud Node is the installed in the local vSphere environment or the local private vCloud.
    • Another vCloud node is installed at a public vCloud.
    • The GUI is either accessible through the vSphere client or
      • There you manage your vCloud connections and do your copy tasks between vClouds.
  • Determine and implement required network and security settings
    • These ports need to be open in NAT connection in the vCloud
      • Port 8443: For communication between vCC Server and Node and between Nodes.
      • Port 5480: For communication with the Web admin interface for the appliance, for example during the registration process.
    • You can change the password, adjust log levle and manage SSL certificates in the Connector Server
    • You will need to replace the self signed SSL certificates before production use.
  • Determine storage requirements and add storage for use by a vCC node
    • Copy operations rely on staging storage when you copy resources between clouds. To successfully copy resources, make sure you have enough storage in your vSphere and vCloud Director clouds. Default storage on Nodes is 40 GB. You may need to increase this if you will be copying large VMs or templates or if you will be copying many items simultaneously.
    • Pre-req
      • Take a snapshot of the appliance
    • In vSphere
      • Add a second hard drive to the VM
      • Go to console and run: sudo /opt/vmware/hcagent/scripts/
    • In vCloud
      • Turn off VM in vApp
      • Select properties ->Hardware->Add->Disk.
      • Power on VM – Open console
      • Logon – admin/vmware
      • Name the new disk, command: ls /dev/sd*
      • Add the new disk, command: sudo /opt/vmware/hcagent/scripts/ <diskname>
  • Register vCloud Connector with vCenter Server
    • In the vCloud Connector GUI click the vSphere Client button
    • Fill in the information
      • IP and name og vCC server and vCenter, user and pw for vCenter.
    • If you previously registered a vSphere client you can choose: Overwrite existing registration
    • Click register.

VCP-IaaS Study Notes: Section 1.1

This is Section 1.1 in the VCP-IaaS blueprint Guide 1.2. The rest of the (completed) sections can be found here.

  • Identify required vCloud components and pre-requisites for installation
    • Components (Figure 1.1)
      • vCloud Director Cell or Cells
        • vCloud Director Database
      • vCenter and ESXi hosts
        • vCenter Database
      • vShield Manager
        • Connected to each vCenter.

    • Prerequisites vCloud Director
      • Networks to be used as external networks should be available to all hosts for the vCloud Director to use.
      • DVS must be used for cross-fencing and network pool allocation.
      • Automated DRS must be configured.
      • vCenter 5.0 cluster can not use storage DRS.
      • vCenter server must trust their ESXi hosts. (certificates)
      • Need to have the appropriate licences 🙂
      • Supported OS:
        • Red Hat Enterprise 5 (64bit), U4,U5 or U6.
      • 950Mb for installation files
      • 1 GB min memory, 2 GB recommended.
      • MSSQL and Oracle supported as databases.
      • SSL certificates for each vCloud network interface (http and consoleproxy)
    • Prerequisites vShield
      • 8GB Memory
      • Disk space – 8GB vShield Manager, 5GB vShield App per ESX host, 200mb per vShield Edge.
      • 2x Gigabit NICs on ESX hosts for all vShield components.
  • Describe installation order of vCloud components
    • Install vCenter and ESXi hosts
      • Configure a cluster with a DVS, Automatic DRS, and External DVS portgroup for external networks.
    • Setup vShield Manager
    • Setup the vCloud Database
    • Install vCloud Director instances.
    • Verify DNS resolution.
    • Verify NTP between vCloud Director Cells and databases
    • Open necessary ports
  • Explain the purpose and use case of each vCloud component
  • VMware vCloud Director (vCD)
  • Cloud Coordinator and UI. Abstracts vSphere resources.
  • vCloud API
    • API used to programmatically interact with a vCloud
  • VMware vSphere
    • Underlying foundation of virtualized resources.
  • VMware vShield
    • Provides network security services
  • VMware vCenter Chargeback
    • Optional component that provides resource metering and reporting to facilitate resource showback/chargeback
  • VMware vCenter Orchestrator
    • Optional component that facilitates orchestration at the vCloud API and vSphere levels.
  • VMware vCloud Request Manager
    • Optional component that provides provisioning request and approval workflows, software license tracking, and policy-based cloud partitioning.
  • VMware vCloud Connector
    • Optional component to facilitate transfer of a powered-off vApp in OVF format from a local vCloud or vSphere to a remote vCloud

  • Create a SysPrep package
    • You will need access to the Sysprep binary files from Windows.
  • Copy the Sysprep binary files for each operating system to a convenient location on a vCloud Director server host.

Each operating system requires its own folder. NOTE Folder names are case-sensitive.

Guest OS Copy Destination
Windows 2000 SysprepBinariesDirectory /win2000
Windows 2003 (32-bit) SysprepBinariesDirectory /win2k3
Windows 2003 (64-bit)  SysprepBinariesDirectory   /win2k3_64
Windows XP (32-bit) SysprepBinariesDirectory /winxp
Windows XP (64-bit) SysprepBinariesDirectory /winxp_64

SysprepBinariesDirectory represents a location you choose to which to copy the binaries.

  • Run the /opt/vmware/cloud-director/deploymentPackageCreator/ SysprepBinariesDirectory command.
  • For example, /opt/vmware/clouddirector/deploymentPackageCreator/ /root/MySysprepFiles.
  • Use the service vmware-vcd restart command to restart the cloud cell.
  •  If you have multiple cloud cells, copy the package and properties file to all cloud cells.
  • scp /opt/vmware/cloud-director/guestcustomization/
  • /opt/vmware/clouddirector/guestcustomization/
  • root@next_cell_IP:/opt/vmware/cloud-director/guestcustomization
  •  Restart each cloud cell to which you copy the files.
  • Install vCloud Director
    • Download installation package to target server
    • Verify checksum
      • md5sum -c checksum-value installation-file
    • Ensure installation file is executable
      • chmod u+x installation-file
    • Run the installation file in console:
      • ./installation-file
    • Press N to run the configuration script later.
    • Setup a NFS volume to be used as temporary storage for uploads and downloads
      • Root needs write permission.
      • The path is /opt/vmware/vcloud-director/data/transfer
      • Need several hundred GB volume.
      • To mount a NFS drive in Red Hat
        • Edit /etc/fstab and add this line
        • IP_of_NFS_Server:/path/mount /opt/vmware/vcloud-director/data/transfernfs   intr   0 0
        • Save your /etc/fstab.
        • Run this command: mount-a
        • Try writing on the newly mounted NFS volume. (vi test, :wq!)
    • Run the configure script again – /opt/vmware/vcloud-director/bin/configure
      • At this time you will need to have your database and SSL certificates ready.
      • Select which IP address will be used for HTTP and Console Proxy.
      • Specify the full path to the Java keystore file. (eg. opt/keystore/certificates.ks)
      • Type keystore and certificate password.
      • Configure audit message handling – send to a syslog server & vCloud database or just the vCloud database.
      • Specify database type. SQL or Oracle.
        • Enter IP address of database.
        • Enter port to listen to. (1521 for Oracle, and 1433 SQL)
        • Type the database service name
          • Note, in SQL don’t change the default value.
        • Type username and password.
    • Choose to start the services.
  • Install vShield Manager
    • Obtain the vShield Manager OVA file.
    • Install the Virtual Appliance.
    • Configure Network settings
      • Go to Console – login as admin/default
      • Go to Enabled mode – command: enable.
      • Run the Setup wizard – command: setup.
    • Go to IP address of appliance in a browser
      • Log in with user admin/default.
      • Change password
    • Sync with vCenter
      • Settings and Reports -> Configuration -> vCenter
    • Register vShield Manager plug-in with vSphere Client
      • Settings and Reports -> Configuration -> vSphere Plug-in
  • Install vCenter Chargeback
    • Pre-req:
      • Ports HTTP-8080,Load-balancer-8009 and HTTPS-443 need to be free.
      • Static IP.
      • Installation files need to be run locally.
      • 2GHz CPU,4GB RAM,2-3GB Disk space, 10-100-1000 ethernet
      • SQL or Oracle 10g
      • Open ports in Windows firewall if needed.
    • Run vCenter-CB.exe
      • Next->Accept EULA->Choose path for installation->Enter database info->Enter load-balancer related info->Install vCenter Chargeback Server-> Enter username and pw for vCenter Chargeback Manager administrative account->Select data collectors that you want to install->If installing vCloud data collector enter database info->Press install ->Generate my own SSL certificate.
  • Install vCloud Connector
    • Download vCC Server virtual appliance and the vCC Node virtual appliance from
    • You can install the server&node appliance in a vSphere environment or an vCloud environment (1.0,1.0.1,1.5).
    • vSphere Environment
      • Import the OVA and assign an IP.
    • vCloud Environment
      • Make the appliances as vApp Template in the vCloud
      • Create the vCloud Connector Server/Node from the template
      • Setup NAT mapping for the Server or Node
  • Configure vCloud Director network connections
    • You need two IP addresses. One for HTTP and one for the ConsoleProxy.
    • When you run the configuration script it asks you what IP you will be using for each.
    • Then you need to point to the SSL certificate keystore.
  • Configure vCloud Director database settings
    • In the same configuration script you select what kind of database will be used: SQL or Oracle
    • Host IP->Port->Database Service name->Database user and password
  • Troubleshoot basic installation issues
    • Ive had trouble with the database connection when running the configure script. Do not change the default name of the SQL Database Service Name.
    • Other than that I can’t think of any… Please comment if you had any problems with basic installation and I will gladly add it this section.